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工作压力会增加23%的心脏病发作风险

健康 89xy 1周前 (11-21) 8次浏览

伦敦大学学院的研究人员在《柳叶刀》上报道说,与工作压力较小的同龄人相比,工作要求很高、没有太多决策自由的员工患心脏病的风险要高得多。

If you have a very stressful job and are not given the freedom to make decisions, your chances of experiencing a heart attack are 23% higher, they explained.

A 2008 study carried out by researchers at the same university in London involving over 10,000 civil servants also linked job stress to a higher risk of heart disease.

Team leader, Mika Kivimäki from University College London, said:

“汇集已发表和未发表的研究使我们能够比以前更精确地调查冠心病与工作压力(由高工作需求和低决策控制定义)之间的关系。我们的发现表明,工作压力与经历第一次冠心病事件(如心脏病发作)的风险较小但持续增加有关。”

The authors explained that prior studies that looked at an association between coronary heart disease and job-related stress have been unsatisfactory; either they were not large or wide-ranging enough, they were not set up comprehensively, or there was a reverse causation bias.

A study carried out by researchers from the Women’s Hospital, Boston, Mass., USA, found that women in highly stressful jobs are 40% more likely to suffer from heart and cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack, ischemic stroke and blocked arteries, than other females of the same age.

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In this latest study, Kivimäki and team set out to determine whether work-related stress might impact on coronary heart disease risk. They conducted a meta-analysis covering 13 European countries, including the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Finland, Denmark, and Belgium. The studies spanned from 1985 to 2006. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning of their the studies – they were asked questions regarding how free they were to make decisions, their job demands, excessive workloads, and levels of time-pressure demands.

Out of 197,473 participants, 15% (30,214) reported job strain. 2,358 cases of coronary heart disease incidences (coronary death or first non-fatal heart attack) over a 7.5 year follow-up period.

Even after taking into account such factors as socioeconomic status, gender, age, and lifestyle, the 23% higher risk of coronary heart disease still stood
.

Kivimäki said:

“冠心病事件的总体人群归因风险(PAR)约为3.4%,这表明如果这种关联是因果关系,那么工作压力将在工作人群的冠心病事件中占显著比例。

因此,减轻工作场所的压力可能会降低疾病的发病率。然而,这种策略的效果比解决标准风险因素(如吸烟(36%)和缺乏锻炼(12%)要小得多。”

In a Comment in the same journal, Bo Netterstrøm from Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark wrote “Job strain is a measure of only part of a psychosocially damaging work environment, which implies that prevention of workplace stress could reduce incidence of coronary heart disease to a greater extent than stated in the authors’ interpretation of the calculated population-attributable risk for job strain. Exposures such as job insecurity and factors related to social capital and emotions, are likely to be of major importance in the future. The present economic crisis will almost certainly increase this importance.”

A 2008 study showed that stress at work hampers sleep; and that the lack of sleep leads to other negative health consequences.

Another study published by the British Psychological Society found that the health impact of work-related stress can be diminished if people believe in their own effectiveness in dealing with the challenges at work.

Written by Christian Nordqvist


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